We are pleased to introduce „ The O-RAN Whitepaper 2021 “ by Rimedo Labs. This post describes the contents of the whitepaper.


Currently, one of the hot topics in Telecoms world is Open RAN. This whitepaper provides a technical discussion in this field. It starts with a definition of Open RAN as a trend. This is followed up by an overview of O-RAN, a term introduced by the O-RAN Alliance, a standardization entity, whose mission is “to re-shape the RAN industry towards more intelligent, open, virtualized and fully interoperable mobile networks”. …

Today we are going to take a look at some items being discussed within the 3GPP Rel-18 with the status as of today (i.e. May 2021). According to [1] the prioritization process on Rel-18 features should be completed by the end of 2021 — with the Rel-18 Package Approval scheduled for December 2021. As of now, the decisions are still focused on the Rel-17 schedule (the current deadline for the Rel-17 stage 3 freeze is March 2022). Meanwhile, some Rel-18 Stage 1 studies are underway, even though it’s still very early for this Release. In fact, 3GPP is planning for…

The previous post in our series discusses the RAN Intelligent Controller in great detail ( O-RAN near-Real-Time RIC). One of the key elements of having RIC (and the overall O-RAN concept for the management of radio networks) is to be able to efficiently manage and optimize the radio network. By using the concept of open interfaces and xApps, O-RAN enables tailored algorithms for specific use cases. O-RAN Alliance [1] specifies preliminary use cases [2, 3] and defines the policy framework by which the algorithms to support the use cases can be controlled. This post provides an overview of the use…

In the previous post, Introduction to O-RAN: Concept and Entities, we’ve looked at the overall O-RAN concept as provided by O-RAN Alliance [1]. This time, we’re going to discuss the different nodes and interfaces creating the flexible and disaggregated O-RAN architecture along with various options for implementation.

O-RAN Nodes

Fig. 1 shows a high-level view of the O-RAN Alliance’s defined nodes. The blue elements are 3GPP defined and adapted by O-RAN specifications (thus the “O-” is added), while the orange ones are O-RAN defined elements. …

Currently, one of the hot topics in the telecoms world is Open RAN. I’d like to start a series of posts to discuss the technicalities in this field. This post is providing an introduction to O-RAN which will be followed by two or three more. First of all, to avoid misunderstandings, the thing that we are going to discuss is the O-RAN with the “dash”. This is the Open RAN as defined by O-RAN Alliance, an entity, which mission is “to re-shape the RAN industry towards more intelligent, open, virtualized and fully interoperable mobile networks” [1].

Introduction to O-RAN

Fig. 1, shows the…

An overview of the private mobile networks was provided in our blog some time ago [see my earlier article: Private Mobile Networks and 5G Era]. Today, I’d like to go a bit more into the details and technical aspects of this topic. This article touches upon 3GPP features related to Private 5G Networks and various deployment options along with an analysis of the pros and cons.


A private mobile network is a 5G or LTE system optimized (tailored) for a specific industrial or enterprise use case (like Industrial Internet of Things, IIoT), where specific requirements play an important role (like…

As the first two releases covering the 5G system are completed (i.e. Release-15 and Rel-16), further features and enhancements are being covered within the ongoing 3GPP Rel-17. Currently, stage 2 of the process is taking place, which describes functions and procedures in a general manner, and performs logical analysis, message flows, and functional elements.

3GPP Rel-17 timeline update

As of now, the following timeline (agreed in March 2020) for 3GPP Rel-17 is still valid [1]:

  • Rel-17 Stage 3 (describing procedures, messages, and information elements (IE), defining hardware behavior to enable multi-vendor interoperability) freeze: September 2021
  • Rel-17 ASN.1 and OpenAPI specification freeze: December 2021



The evolution of mobile wireless systems into heterogeneous networks, along with the introduction of fifth-generation systems, significantly increased the complexity of radio resource management. Current mobile networks consist of a multitude of spectrum bands, use cases, system features, licensing schemes, radio technologies, and network layers. Fig. 1 below shows the evolution of LTE towards 5G along with key features to visualize the complexity increase.

Additionally, the traffic demand is uneven in terms of spatial and temporal domains, calling for a dynamic approach to radio resource allocation. To cope with these complexities, a generic and adaptive scheme is required for the…

Whenever being asked this question, I always start my answer with the paraphrase of a quote from prof. Andy Sutton, “If we get 5G right, there will be no need for 6G” [1]. This is because I fully agree with that quote, although it doesn’t hold anymore, as we already have 5G and the research community works on 6G.

Introduction to the perspective of Next G’s

I’d like to make some points out of it which can be generalized towards whateverG happens next:

  • There is a marketing aspect to it, from which there will always be nextG, because vendors need to sell nextG to the operators every…

If all the projects involved various experts in their fields, the world would have a chance to move forward a little faster…

The state of radiocommunication

The development of technology is gaining momentum. The periods between successive breakthroughs are shortening.

Where we are in the radiocommunications world?

  • 5G is in the commercialization phase while 6G in the early concept phase;
  • New concepts are getting traction, including: Open RAN, RAN virtualization, software-based systems, local spectrum / dynamic spectrum licensing
  • Industry 4.0 and verticals — the use of mobile / 5G / LTE systems in various / new applications and the need for specialists in the…

Marcin Dryjanski, Ph.D.

Senior IEEE Member, co-author of numerous research papers on 5G design, and a book: “From LTE to LTE-Advanced Pro and 5G” published by Artech House in 2017.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store